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‚PDŒoŒ±‚·‚邱‚Ƃ̃Aƒ|ƒŠƒA \\ Fitzgerald‚Ì’Z•Ò‚𒆐S‚É

@@àVú±@—R‹NŽq@F@ŠÖ¼‘åŠwi‰@j

‚QDF. Scott Fitzgerald‚ÌThe Great Gatsby@‚É‚¨‚¯‚éu—΁v‚ɂ‚¢‚Ä

@@òàV@‚Ý‚ä‚«@F@”~ŒõŠw‰@‘åŠwi‰@j

‰Á“¡ Œõ’j

‚RDThe Torrents of Spring@‚©‚ç@The Sun Also Rises ‚ց\\ ƒvƒŠƒ~ƒeƒBƒrƒYƒ€‚Ö‚Ì’ïR‚Æ‚»‚̐lŽí“IŠÜˆÓ

@@’†‘º@‹œ@F@’†‰›‘åŠw

‚SDIdentifying gEast of Edenh: Language and Symbols in Steinbeck

@@Randy Kay Checketts@F@H“cŒoÏ–@‰È‘åŠw



àVú±@—R‹NŽq@ŠÖ¼‘åŠwi‰@j


]—ˆKenneth Eble‚âJohn Kuehl‚ªŽå’£‚µ‚Ä‚«‚½‚悤‚ɁAPat Hobby‚à‚Ì‚É‚¨‚¯‚éŽOlÌ‚ÌŒê‚èŽè‚́AŒê‚èŽè‚É‚æ‚é"detachment"‚ÌŠ´Šo\\ ‚Ђ¢‚ẮA‚»‚̃fƒBƒ^ƒbƒ`‚³‚ꂽŠ´Šo‚©‚琶‚¶‚é"comic irony"‚ÌŠ´Šo‚Ɉӎ¯“I‚É‚È‚è‚â‚·‚¢‚ªA‚»‚̃N[ƒGƒ‹‚ªˆø—p‚·‚é"Boil Some Water--Lots of It"‚Å‚à¶‚¶‚Ä‚¢‚é‚̂́A"detachment"‚݂̂Ȃ炸"commitment"‚ÌŠ´Šo‚Å‚ ‚éB‚±‚ꂪEdmund WilsonˆÈ~A”í’Ç•úŽÒ‚Æ’Ç•úŽÒAƒ}ƒWƒ‡ƒŠƒeƒB‚ƃ}ƒCƒmƒŠƒeƒB‚ÌŽ‹“_‚Æ‚µ‚ÄIrish WASP‚Å‚ ‚éƒtƒBƒbƒcƒWƒFƒ‰ƒ‹ƒh‚ÌŒê‚è‚Ì“Á’¥‚Æ‚³‚ꂽ"double vision"‚Å‚à‚ ‚èA‚±‚¤‚µ‚½ƒ”ƒBƒWƒ‡ƒ“‚̏]‚¤‚Æ‚±‚ë‚́AŒê‚èŽè‚ƃpƒbƒg‚ªŒê‚肤‚éƒnƒŠƒEƒbƒh‚Å‚Í"Pat Hobby's Secret"‚̂悤‚ȃXƒ^ƒWƒIEƒVƒXƒeƒ€‚É‚¨‚¯‚鋤”ÆŠÖŒW‚âAãq‚Ì’Z•Ò‚È‚ç‚΁AƒVƒXƒeƒ€‚É“¯‰»‚µ‚Ä‚¢‚éƒpƒbƒg‚Æ‚»‚¤‚Å‚È‚¢‘¼ŽÒ‚ÌŒoŒ±‚̊ԂŐ¶‚¶‚éƒGƒXƒjƒbƒNEƒNƒŒƒ“ƒWƒ“ƒO‚Å‚ ‚éB‘¼•û‚±‚̃”ƒBƒWƒ‡ƒ“‚ª’Z•ÒƒVƒŠ[ƒY‘S”Ê‚Ì‘¶Ý˜_“IŒ»Û‚Æ‚µ‚ĂƂ炦‚Ä‚¢‚é‚̂́A"the victim of the very plots"‚Æ‚µ‚Ẵpƒbƒg‚ÌŒoŒ±A’ˆ‚Âè‚É‚È‚è’EŽå‘̉»‚³‚ꂽA“Ɛg‚Ì”’l’†”N’j«‚É‚æ‚éŽå‘Ì•Ï—e‚̍¢“ï‚Å‚ ‚éBƒnƒŠƒEƒbƒh‚ł̃LƒƒƒŠƒA‚ª‚ ‚è‚È‚ª‚ç‚àAƒXƒ^ƒWƒI“àŠK‘w‚É‚¨‚¢‚︋‹‚ÌŒ©ž‚Ý‚ª‚È‚­A‹r–{‰»‚ð‚ß‚®‚Á‚Ä‚Í—â‹ö‚³‚ê‚éƒpƒbƒg‚ÌŒoŒ±‚Ƃ́A"Two Old Timers"‚Å—áØ‚³‚ê‚é‚悤‚ȁA‘¼ŽÒ‚¨‚æ‚сu‰ß‚¬‹Ž‚Á‚½¡v‚Æ‚µ‚ẲߋŽ‚Æ‚Ì•¹’u‚É‚¨‚¢‚āAƒpƒbƒg‚¶‚µ‚ñ‚ª’²’â‚Å‚«‚È‚¢’j«Žå‘́AæŒ±“IŽå‘Ì‚Æê’ê—‚ð‚«‚½‚·‚ª‚»‚ê‚É‘Ï‚¦A“¯‚¶ƒvƒƒbƒg‚Ì’†‚ŃXƒeƒŒƒIƒ^ƒCƒv‚ð‰‰‚¶(mask)A”½•œ‚·‚邱‚ƂŐ¶‘¶‚·‚éŒoŒ±‚Å‚ ‚éB

"Pat Hobby's Secret"‚É‚¨‚¯‚éƒpƒbƒg‚́Aƒvƒƒfƒ…[ƒT[‚Æ‹¤–d‚µA‚·‚łɃVƒiƒŠƒI‚ÌŒ‹––‚ð—Š‚Ü‚ê‚Ä‚¢‚½•Ê‚̍ì‰Æ‚©‚çA‚»‚ÌŒ‹––‚𓐗p‚µ‚悤‚Æ‚·‚邪AŠú‘Ò‚³‚ꂽ•ñV‚ðŽ¸‚¤Œ‹––ƒpƒbƒg‚̔閧‚ðŒ}‚¦‚éB‚±‚̔閧‚Ƃ́A•Ê‚̍ì‰Æ‚ɐ¬‚è‘ã‚í‚Á‚½•ñV‚ÉŽ¸”s‚·‚é‚Æ‚¢‚¤‚æ‚è‚́A‚·‚łɔނ¶‚µ‚ñ‚ŃVƒiƒŠƒI‚ð”­“W‚Å‚«‚È‚¢ƒWƒŒƒ“ƒ}‚Å‚ ‚èA‚Þ‚µ‚다”ÆŠÖŒW‚ªŒ°Ý‰»‚µ‚Ä‚¢‚é‚̂́AƒXƒ^ƒWƒIEƒVƒXƒeƒ€‚ł̔ނ̌Ž•À‚Ý‚È”\—͂̏Á–Õ‚Å‚ ‚éB"Boil Some Water"‚É‚¨‚¢‚ẮA—â‹ö‚ÉŒƒV‚·‚é’†‰¢og‚Ì”o—D‚̏ˆ‹ö‚ɑ΂µAƒpƒbƒg‚Í—•ss‚³‚ð‰‰‚¶‚邪A‚»‚̐³‹`Š´‚ɂ̓g[ƒL[“ž—ˆŽž‚É–K‚ꂽŒã”­ŽÒ‚Ö‚ÌŒy•Ì‚ƁAŒ»ó‚ɑ΂·‚鎩ŒÈ‰·‘¶‚Ì‹U‘•‚ªŒ©‚¦‚é‚Ì‚Å‚ ‚éB–{”­•\‚ł́Aƒpƒbƒg‚Æ‚¢‚¤’j«Žå‘Ì‚ª‚¢‚©‚ɐ¶‘¶‚µ‚Ä‚¢‚­‚©‚ð’Ç‚¢‚‚AuŠ´“I‚ÈŒë•Tv(Christphor Ames)‚𔺂¢‚È‚ª‚ç‚àA•½–}‚³‚֑ϐ«‚ð•Û‚¿A‚µ‚½‚½‚©‚³‚ð”é‚ß‚éƒpƒbƒg‚Ì•]‰¿‚ðs‚¢‚½‚¢B


òàV@‚Ý‚ä‚«@”~ŒõŠw‰@‘åŠwi‰@j


The Great Gatsby ‚Ì’†‚Å‚Ígreen‚Æ‚¢‚¤Œ`—eŽŒ‚ª17‰ñŽg—p‚³‚ê‚Ä‚¢‚éB“Á‚ÉŒê‚èŽèNick ‚ªGatsby‚ð‰‚ß‚ÄŒ©‚©‚¯‚éê–ʂ́AˆÃ‚¢ŠC‚ÉŒõ‚éh a single green lighth‚ª‹É‚߂ĈóÛ“I‚Å‚ ‚éB“`‹Lì‰ÆAndrew Turnbull‚Ì‹Lq‚É‚æ‚ê‚΁AFitzgerald‚ªu—΁v‚Æ‚¢‚¤F‚É‚±‚¾‚í‚è‚Ì‚ ‚éì‰Æ‚¾‚Á‚½‚Æ‚¢‚¦‚éB–{”­•\‚É‚¨‚¢‚Ă͍ìŽÒ‚ªu—΁v‚ɂǂ̂悤‚ȈӖ¡‚ðž‚ß‚Ä‚¢‚é‚Ì‚©‚ðlŽ@‚·‚éB

‚Í‚¶‚߂ɁAì•i’†‚ɂ͉Ž‹“I‚ȗ΂ƕs‰ÂŽ‹“I‚ȗ΂ª‚ ‚邱‚Æ‚ðŽw“E‚µ‚½‚¢B—Ⴆ‚ÎGatsby‚ÌŽÔ‚Ì“à‘•‚́ha sort of green leather conservatoryh‚̂悤‚Å‚ ‚é‚ÆŒ¾‚Á‚Ä‚¢‚éBNick‚ªŠw¶Žž‘ã‚É—ñŽÔ‚Å’†¼•”‚Ö‚Æ‹AÈ‚·‚éÛ‚ÉŽè‚É‚µ‚Ä‚¢‚½‚̂́Ahthe long green ticketh‚Å‚ ‚èA‚Ü‚½‘Oq‚́ha single green lighth‚͉Ž‹“I‚ȗ΂ł ‚éBˆê•û‚Łhgreen lighth‚ɂ́A‰ÂŽ‹“I‚ȁha (single) green lighth‚Ì‚Ù‚©‚ɁAì•i’†‚É‚Í•s‰ÂŽ‹‚́A‰B•Á‚³‚ꂽhthe green lighth‚ª‘¶Ý‚·‚邱‚Æ‚ðŽw“E‚µ‚½‚¢B

‚Ü‚¸‚±‚Ì•s‰ÂŽ‹‚́u—΂̌õv‚Í“S“¹‰¤James Jerome Hill(1838-1916)‚ÆŒ‹‚т‚­BHill‚͍ìŽÒFitzgerald‚̌̋½ƒ~ƒlƒ\ƒ^BƒZƒ“ƒgƒ|[ƒ‹‚Ì–¼Žm‚Å‚ ‚èAFitzgerald‚Æ“¯‚¶ƒAƒCƒ‹ƒ‰ƒ“ƒhŒn‚̐¬Œ÷ŽÒ‚Å‚ ‚éB•s‰ÂŽ‹‚̗΂̌õ‚ÍHill‚Ì•~‚¢‚½ü˜H‚̏ã‚ð‘–‚èA’n—“II’…’n“_ƒZƒ“ƒgƒ|[ƒ‹‚Ö‚Æ‚½‚Ç‚è’…‚«A‚³‚ç‚ÉHill‚ÉŒü‚¯‚ç‚ꂽFitzgerald‚ÌŽ‹ü‚É‚æ‚Á‚āA‘z‘œ“I‹óŠÔƒAƒCƒ‹ƒ‰ƒ“ƒh‚ւƐL‚Ñ‚Ä‚¢‚éB

ˆê•û‚ŁA‘æ9Í‚́ha fresh, green breast of the new worldh‚Æ‚¢‚¤‰ÓŠ‚́ANick‚̐SÛ‚É•‚‚©‚яオ‚é—΂ł ‚邪AJames Joyce‚ÌUlyssesi1922j‘æ‚P‘}˜b‚́hWhite breast of the dim sea.h‚Æ‚¢‚¤Œ¾‚¢‰ñ‚µ‚ª”½‹¿‚µ‚Ä‚¢‚é‚悤‚É‚àŽv‚í‚ê‚éB

Fitzgerald‚ÍJames Joyce‚𐒔q‚µ‚Ä‚¢‚½ì‰Æ‚Å‚ ‚èAŒê‚èŽèNick‚ªFitzgerald‚Ì•ªg‚Å‚ ‚é‚È‚ç‚΁AFitzgerald‚ÌUlysses“Ǐ‘‘ÌŒ±‚ÍNick‚Ɏ󂯌p‚ª‚ê‚Ä‚¢‚é‚Í‚¸‚Å‚ ‚èA‚±‚ÌŽ‹“_‚©‚çThe Great Gatsby‚Ì“±“ü•”‚É’…–Ú‚µ‚½‚¢B

–{”­•\‚ł́A•s‰ÂŽ‹‚̗΂̈Ӗ¡‚·‚é‚Æ‚±‚낪Hill“¯—lAJoyce‚Ì‘¶Ý‚ð’Ê‚¶‚āAƒAƒCƒ‹ƒ‰ƒ“ƒh‚Ö‚ÆŒ‹‚Ñ•t‚¯‚ç‚ê‚Ä‚¢‚邱‚Æ‚ðŽ¦‚µA‚Ђ¢‚Ä‚ÍThe Great Gatsby‚ªFitzgeraldŽ©g‚̃AƒCƒ‹ƒ‰ƒ“ƒhŒnƒAƒƒŠƒJl‚Æ‚µ‚ẴAƒCƒfƒ“ƒeƒBƒeƒB‚ð‹­‚­ˆÓŽ¯‚µ‚½ì•i‚Å‚ ‚邱‚Æ‚ðA–¾‚ç‚©‚É‚·‚éB


’†‘º@‹œ@’†‰›‘åŠw


Hemingway‚Ì•¶Šw‚ƐlŽí‚Æ‚¢‚¤–â‘è‚ð‚ß‚®‚Á‚āA‚±‚̏\”N‚Ù‚Ç‚ÌŠÔ‚ÉŠvV“I‚È“ñ‚‚̌©‰ð‚ª’ñŽ¦‚³‚ê‚Ä‚¢‚éB‚Ð‚Æ‚Â‚Í Ann Douglas ‚ÌŽw“E‚ŁA”ޏ—‚Í1920”N‘ã‚̃AƒƒŠƒJ•¶Šw‚É‚¨‚¯‚鍕l•¶‰»‚Æ”’l•¶‰»‚Ì‘ŠŒÝ‰e‹¿‚ð˜_‚¶‚½’˜ì‚Ì’†‚ŁAã•i‚ȃnƒCƒuƒƒE‚Ì•¶‰»‚É”½”­‚µ‚Ä‚¢‚½Hemingway‚ªAƒuƒ‹[ƒX‚âƒWƒƒƒY‚Ȃǂ̍•l•¶‰»‚©‚班‚È‚©‚ç‚ʉe‹¿‚ðŽó‚¯‚½‚Ì‚Å‚Í‚È‚¢‚©‚Ɛ„‘ª‚µ‚Ä‚¢‚éBˆê•ûDouglas ‚Ƃ͑ΏƓI‚ÉWalter Benn Michaels ‚́AHemingway‚Ì‘ã•\ì The Sun Also Rises ‚ɈِlŽí¬Œð‚Ö‚Ì•sˆÀElŽí“Iƒˆ«‚ւ̊󋁂ð“Ç‚ÝŽæ‚Á‚Ä‚¢‚éB

—lX‚ȐlŽí‚ªÚG‚µŒð‚¶‚荇‚¤1920”N‘ã‚̎Љïó‹µ‚Ì’†‚ÅHemingway‚ª‚¢‚©‚È‚é—§ê‚É—§‚Á‚Ä‚¢‚½‚©‚Æ‚¢‚¤‚±‚Æ‚ÉŠÖ‚µ‚āA‘ΏƓI‚È“ñ‚‚̌©‰ð‚ª‘¶Ý‚·‚é‚킯‚Å‚ ‚邪A‚±‚̐lŽí‚ð‚ß‚®‚é20”N‘ã‚ÌHemingway‚Ì—§ê‚ðl‚¦‚éã‚Å’–Ú‚µ‚½‚¢‚Ì‚ªA”Þ‚Ì’˜ì‚Ì’†‚Å‚à]—ˆ‚ ‚Ü‚è˜_‚¶‚ç‚ê‚Ä‚±‚È‚©‚Á‚½The Torrents of Spring ‚Å‚ ‚éB–{”­•\‚ł́AThe Sun Also Rises ‚ƁA‚»‚ÌŽ·•M‚̍‡ŠÔ‚ɐæ”yì‰Æ’B‚Ì’˜ì‚̃pƒƒfƒB‚Æ‚µ‚ď‘‚©‚ꂽThe Torrents of Spring ‚ðˆê‘΂̃eƒNƒXƒg‚Æ‚µ‚Ĉµ‚¢A‚±‚ê‚ç“ñ‚‚̃eƒNƒXƒg‚ÆThe Torrents of Spring ‚É‚¨‚¢‚ăpƒƒfƒB‚̑ΏۂƂȂÁ‚Ä‚¢‚é•¡”‚̐æsƒeƒNƒXƒg‚Æ‚ÌŠÖ˜A‚ðŒŸØ‚·‚éB

‚»‚ÌŒ‹‰Ê•‚‚«’¤‚è‚É‚È‚é‚̂́A“¯Žž‘ã‚̍•l—çŽ^‚ƃvƒŠƒ~ƒeƒBƒrƒYƒ€‚Ì—¬s‚É”½”­‚µ‚½Hemingway‚ªAŽ©•ª‚̃eƒNƒXƒg‚ÌŒ`Ž®‚Æ“à—e‚©‚çlŽí“I‚Ȋ܈ӂ𕥐@‚µ‚悤‚Æ‚µ‚½‚Æ‚¢‚¤‚±‚Æ‚Å‚ ‚éB

Œ`Ž®–Ê‚É‚¨‚¯‚élŽí“I‚Ȋ܈ӂ̕¥@‚Æ‚Í‚·‚È‚í‚¿AŒÀ’肳‚ꂽˆÕ‚µ‚¢Œêœb‚Æ’Pƒ‚ȍ\•¶‚©‚ç‚È‚é”Þ‚ÌŒûŒê“I‚È•¶‘Ì‚ªA•l‚ÌŒ¾—t‚Æ—ÞŽ—«‚ðŽ‚Â‚à‚Ì‚ÆŒ©‚È‚³‚ê‚È‚¢‚悤‚É‚·‚é‚Æ‚¢‚¤‚±‚Æ‚Å‚ ‚éBƒpƒƒfƒB‚̑Ώۂɂ³‚ꂽSherwood Anderson‚ÆGertrude Stein‚ÌŒûŒê“I•¶‘̂́A•l‚̘b‚µŒ¾—t‚ð–͕킵‚½–Ê‚ª‚ ‚Á‚½‚ªA‚»‚¤‚µ‚½æ”yì‰Æ‚ÆHemingway‚͈êü‚ð‰æ‚»‚¤‚Æ‚µ‚½‚Ì‚¾B

‚Ü‚½“à—e–Ê‚É‚¨‚¢‚ẮAThe Sun Also Rises ‚Æ‚¢‚¤ƒCƒ“ƒ|ƒeƒ“ƒc‚Ì’j«‚̘b‚ðA“¯—l‚ɃCƒ“ƒ|ƒeƒ“ƒc‚ðƒ‚ƒ`[ƒt‚Æ‚µ‚½Anderson‚ÌDark Laughter ‚É‚Í‚Á‚«‚莦‚³‚ê‚Ä‚¢‚é‚悤‚ȁA«“I‚É‹•Žã‰»‚µ‚½”’l‚É‚æ‚éƒvƒŠƒ~ƒeƒBƒu‚ÈŠˆ—Í‚Ö‚Ì“²‚ê‚ð•\Œ»‚µ‚½•¨Œê‚Æ‚µ‚Ä“Ç‚Ü‚ê‚邱‚Æ‚ð‹‘â‚µ‚悤‚Æ‚µ‚½‚ÆŒ¾‚¦‚éB

‚µ‚©‚µ‚È‚ª‚çAŽ©•ª‚Ì•¶Šw‚©‚çlŽí“I‚Ȋ܈ӂ𕥐@‚µ‚悤‚Æ‚µ‚½‚É‚à‚©‚©‚í‚炸A‚ ‚é‚¢‚Í‚»‚¤‚µ‚½Šé‚Ă䂦‚É‹t‚ɁAHemingway‚ª‘I‘ð‚µ‚½•¶Šw“I‚È—§ê‚Í“Á’è‚̐lŽí“IˆÓ–¡‡‚¢‚ð‘тт邱‚Æ‚É‚È‚éB–{”­•\‚Å‚Í‚»‚̐lŽí“IˆÓ–¡‡‚¢‚ðÅI“I‚É‚Í–¾‚ç‚©‚É‚µ‚½‚¢B


Randy Kay Checketts@H“cŒoÏ–@‰È‘åŠw


John Steinbeck was very interested in the control that religion can have over the minds of men and women. So in East of Eden he analyzed gmoralityh (in western thought) by viewing the present and historical fallout created by believers of the Judeo-Christian gcreationh myth found in the Old Testament of the Bible. But he calls his novel gthe story of my county (not gcountryh, author) and the story of meh, thereby personalizing a (biblical) drama that has had far-reaching implications in the history of western man. He once intended to call his novel Cain Sign, stressing an association with the theme of ggood and evilh found in the Garden of Eden/Adam and Eve/Cain and Abel chronicle.

In part, this presentation will address the issue of how to consider what is meant by the terms geasth and gEdenh. It will be shown how these terms are confusing when used together. Steinbeck may have been aware of the confusion; indeed he may also have been confused, having been born in America where, certainly, many ideas (especially those regarding the Bible) are given an innate, sacrosanct value (especially in religious circles).

But when one scrutinizes the biblical version of the Cain and Abel story in relation to the Garden of Eden fable, many interesting word associations and meanings emerge. For example, after Cain killed his brother he was expelled from Eden and banished to the gLand of Nodh (again, in the geasth). What does this mean? What did it mean to Steinbeck when he, at one time, stated gSurely Salinas (his birthplace, author) is gfEastf of Edenh? And then after his banishment from Eden, Cain was gprotectedh from harm and death. Why? These and other ideas surely inspired Steinbeck who, himself, was the father of two boys. We may thus be encouraged to believe that the meaning of words and terms that the writer used in the novel have significance. This will also be considered in the presentation.

The writer has said that he had been writing on this novel all of his life, and yet he called it his gfirst bookh. He also stated that the book was his gmagnum opus.h At one time he wrote gIfve been practicing for a book for 35 years and this is it.h By studying the words used in both the title and in the text of the novel we can begin to understand how the writer perceived the greatest story that has plagued the western mind since time immemorial.